雇用員工

創業至少要知道系列-老闆找員工的法律常識《勞動基準法》身為老闆的你,準備好了嗎?

最後更新日期 2022年01月18日

創業的開始,我們從雇用員工聊起。  

我現在也是一個創業者,自己經營一間事務所,也可以說是一間工作室,所以算是自由工作者吧?因為專業性質的關係,我可以校長兼撞鐘,律師兼助理,講師兼打掃阿伯,但是總不可能永遠這樣維持下去,雖然是有看過一本書是在講一人公司的好處,那這本書也就叫做「一人公司:為什麼小而美是未來企業發展的趨勢」,我也發自內心覺得裡面某些觀點確實讓人心動,然而這些卻沒辦法澆熄我那小小的虛榮心(大概是「助理,這個狀幫我做一下,拜託…」的程度),所以就結論上,還是想要在未來的某一天,在最低程度上請一個員工來供俸,滿足我小小的虛榮心,也因為這樣子,在這個專題的伊始,決定先從雇用員工開始。  

在創業的過程中,相信很多人也是跟我依樣是老闆兼會計、校長兼撞鐘,但是無可否認的,蠻多的事業是需要有其他人力來協助創業者維持事業運作,這些「人力」來源,可能會是其他合夥人、外包廠商、專技人員或這次的主題,雇用員工,而在進入主題之前,或許可以來聊聊創業時的各種人力來源。

誰是勞工?  

創業就是丟身家下去,當然要把身邊所有資源活用到極致才會甘心,最好是家裡養的狗狗都能來幫忙站櫃檯,以報多年養育之恩(不過不可能),所以我們會去找其他人來幫忙,這樣的人包含了各種技術外包,諸如網頁設計、系統建置、稅務財會、人事管理、運送物流等等不一而足,但這些來源不全都屬於勞動基準法上的勞工,仍然要看業主跟這些人員之間的法律關係為何始能確定,而判斷上最簡單的方式就是「為雇主服勞務而獲取工資」並且要有「從屬性」,但是因為從屬性的部分太深了,所以解釋的部分有興趣自己看註釋,沒興趣的就簡單一點想,你給錢以後管理他並叫他做事,就有可能算是勞工了。

雇勞工前要先想的事

  滿足小小的老闆慾望,背後是大大的成本負擔,以下幾個在雇勞工之前可以先想想的事情,看還敢不敢請:

  1. 薪資以外,依照法律規定雇主要負擔勞工部分的勞、健保
  2. 需要有法定事由(勞基法第11、12條)才能解雇員工,而不是呼之則來、揮之則去。
  3. 就算有理由(勞基法第16條)而解雇勞工,在正常狀況下要給他預告期間,讓他找工作,最後還要給一筆錢(資遣費)好聚好散。
  4. 調動還要符合「調動五原則」(勞基法第10-1條),調動的職位太遠、太累、太難都有可能有問題,調動位置還不能隨便減薪。
  5. 如果是學會營業秘密的員工(勞基法第9-1條),沒給補償原則上不能限制他去從事競業行為。
  6. 勞工擺爛要好好輔導(勞基法第11、12條),要給他耐心跟機會,不到最後關頭(最後手段性)不能輕易放棄他!
  7. 勞工發生職業災害的各種補償,你,準備好了嗎?
  8. 其他零零總總,這格由你來填。

  綜上所陳,我個人是認為沒那個屁股不要吃那個瀉藥,沒把握負擔勞工的一生,就不要隨便雇用他們,因為我為了糊口飯吃,會舉起人民的法槌,敲向這些資本主義的走狗,為我們廣大勞工爭取權益。(希望我未來的助理不要拿人民的法槌敲我)

我準備好要雇勞工了,然後?

  嗨嗨!勇者,沒想到你賺沒幾個錢就敢來雇勞工阿!感謝你為了國家與社會經濟的付出,願意提供我們就業機會,達到互助互利的共榮未來,因此在之後,我們將會分篇提幾個新手村要注意的點,希望您在成長茁壯以後,不要忘記新手村導覽員,每個月訂閱我們的專欄,讓我們為更多萌新服務!

一、試用期

錄取前美如詩篇 錄取後卻如蚊子血 像極了愛情

  面對應聘者完美的履歷,我們對於未來總有綺麗的幻想,只要聘請了他,大到出國商業談判、小到端茶洗廁所,整個公司就這麼完整了起來,不過事實總是殘酷的,不論是因為慣老闆的幻想或慣員工的詐欺,醜媳婦總有見公婆的一天,如果看見的那一剎挪驚覺不對了,試用期或許能夠保你一命。

  建議在錄取員工時應該要先約定試用期的原因,主要是因為勞動基準法對於雇主解僱勞工是需要符合一定要件始得為之,而這個要件其實某種程度上也不是那麼容易可以達到,且實務上為了讓雇主能夠有時間評價勞工的能力與適用性,多承認試用期間之約定,因此為了勞雇雙方賓主盡歡,建議有個試用期也是很合理的。只不過試用期還是要注意一些事情:

  1. 期限:「合理期間」,曾經在勞基法施行細則有規定過時間,但是因為母法沒有規定所以被刪除了,而主管機關是認為要約定合理的適用期間,恩,合理。
  2. 試用期沒過:恭喜你,因為試用期約定的關係,實務大部分認為只要不違反權利濫用就可以終止合約(終止權保留說),所以也不用有法定終止事由、不用預告、不用給付預告工資、不用給付資遣費,呀比
  3. 試用期的勞動條件還是要依照勞基法辦理。
  4. 試用期可否延長?原則上不行,但是如果雇主原本想要解僱勞工,但是因為想要再給他一次機會所以延長試用期,而且勞工也同意的話,有認為可以。

二、離職後的競業禁止約定

  沒有人希望自己的技術被人偷走,但是長江總是後浪推前浪,除了精益求精以外,是可以約定員工離職後不可以從事競爭性的同類工作,也就是競業禁止規定。但是這樣的約定也不是隨隨便便就可以規定的,要知道,大家活在這個社會上不就混口飯吃,你怕技術被員工學去以後反而來跟自己競爭,相對的,員工可能也需要用這項技能在江湖上走跳,因此如何平衡大家的利益,實務上很早就提出競業禁止是否符合公序良俗的判斷要件,之後甚至已經訂入勞基法第9-1條,如果沒有依照這些要件制定競業禁止條款,那該約定也將無效。  概要來講,如果要訂競業禁止條款,應該要是保護雇主的正當營業利益,而且勞工要能夠接觸到雇主的營業秘密限制的時間、地點等等也要合理,最重要的是雇主對勞工因此所受的損失要給予合理補償。上述當中那麼多「合理」,那怎樣叫做合理?我覺得是見仁見智見法官,當然如果整理一下實務見解應該可以有一定邏輯,但那不是創業要知道的範疇,最重要的是知道當事業有營業秘密時,記得要做相應的防護,以免被全碗端去(備註)。

  沒有人希望自己的技術被人偷走,但是長江總是後浪推前浪,除了精益求精以外,是可以約定員工離職後不可以從事競爭性的同類工作,也就是競業禁止規定。但是這樣的約定也不是隨隨便便就可以規定的,要知道,大家活在這個社會上不就混口飯吃,你怕技術被員工學去以後反而來跟自己競爭,相對的,員工可能也需要用這項技能在江湖上走跳,因此如何平衡大家的利益,實務上很早就提出競業禁止是否符合公序良俗的判斷要件,之後甚至已經訂入勞基法第9-1條,如果沒有依照這些要件制定競業禁止條款,那該約定也將無效。  概要來講,如果要訂競業禁止條款,應該要是保護雇主的正當營業利益,而且勞工要能夠接觸到雇主的營業秘密限制的時間、地點等等也要合理,最重要的是雇主對勞工因此所受的損失要給予合理補償。上述當中那麼多「合理」,那怎樣叫做合理?我覺得是見仁見智見法官,當然如果整理一下實務見解應該可以有一定邏輯,但那不是創業要知道的範疇,最重要的是知道當事業有營業秘密時,記得要做相應的防護,以免被全碗端去(備註)。

三、最低服務年限約定

  雖然雇員工麻煩,但是找到完美的員工絕對是創業路途中的一大助力,就像是遊戲王抽到蕾雅卡、抽福袋開到SS大獎一樣,好的首抽讓你上天堂;就算沒有抽到稀有卡,刷到普卡但是雇主花錢花時間幫他刷經驗、刷能力,六星突破後用起來更是有種用心栽培、患難與共的感覺,這種經營跟養成後的成就感,真的無可取代。可惜人生是場糞GAME,你抽到的電子資料在遊戲公司倒掉之前都是你的,而人生中聘到的稀有員工是會隨時走人的,有時候連倒數計時都沒有。  為了避免讓這場糞GAME玩不下去,玩家總是會自立自強,因此,在社會上就會出現「最低服務年限約定」,但是如果讓雇主耍玩這套規定,雖然爽了雇主,但是相對的員工的人生也會變成糞GAME,所以勞基法就對於這種約定制定了相對明確的標準,讓大家的人生online都處於有點糞但沒有太糞的狀況。而這套規則的概念也很簡單,可以想像成課金退還系統,如果雇主有對勞工進行專業技術培訓或提供合理補償,原則上即可以在合理範圍(勞基法第15-1條第2項)內約定最低服務年限,不過違約金還是有可能被酌減、訓練費用償還也容易依比例扣減。

待續

  前面已經說了一些勞基法所明定的幾個勞動契約約定特別規定,接下來將對於契約當中可以調整跟應該注意的事項,以「創業至少要知道」的程度來解說,這樣才能節省時間成本,畢竟創業的目的是賺錢,而不是當勞動法專家(況且我也不是專家)。

備註:另外說一下,如果員工離職的原因是不可歸責於勞工,尤其是離職原因可歸責於雇主,那還有沒有競業禁止條款的適用,就很·難·說,有人認為是都有適用,有人認為可以排除適用,有人認為應該區分簽訂競業禁止條款的時間是在受僱時或者是離職前,但是這個東西只是我的筆記,有翻到備註的就看看吧。

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